liquid fduel, direct liquefaction, catalytic, coal, petroleum residua
Energy Catalysis, Inc. developed a direct catalytic liquefaction process for converting low-volatile heavy hydrocarbons such as coal, petroleum residuum, vacuum gas-oil, and tar sand bitumen into clean light liquid fuels. The technology concept was based on efficient reactor system and specific nano-catalysts.ECI process uses highly active nano-catalysts in efficient reactor system to avoid back-mixing and retrogressive reactions.Typical product yield from liquefaction of bituminous coal: 80 w% liquid mostly in the C4-650oF range, 5 w% C1-C3 gases,no tar. Estimated cost of liquid product is $38 to $42 per barrel. The process has very low emissions of green-house gas and air pollutants.