Research at the University of Illinois (UIUC) has helped pioneer a new form of cold fusion termed “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions” (LENR) where proton or deuteron reactions with a hydrated solid lattice (e.g. Pd) result in a variety of nuclear transmutation products and energy production.  The objective is to develop a radically new nuclear power source which can have a small size and is environmentally compatible. In this presentation the basic UIUC LENR research is first reviewed, including identification of reaction products and supporting evidence of simultaneous energy production and emission of energetic particle (e.g. MeV protons and alpha particles).. Implications for development of a “green” power source are then explored. Power cell development at the UIUC builds on a condensed matter (Bose-Einstein) deuterium cluster model that has been developed to explain electrolysis experiments using deuterium and multi-layer thin-film electrodes where excess heat was observed. [1 -3] As a result of the insight gained into cluster reactions in these LENR experiments, a new class of electrodes designed to enhance cluster formation is under development. The basis for the new electrode manufacture originates from prior studies of superconductive states associated with clusters formed in dislocation loops created in cyclic loading-deloading of H/D thin-film palladium electrodes.  In that research repeated loading and deloading of hydrogen or deuterium in the Pd electrodes caused stresses that created the dislocation loops where the hydrogen or deuterium clusters form. Thus the objective of the new electrode development is to use nano-structuring of electrode materials to mimic these dislocation loops and form an even higher density of them, thus increasing power densities in power cells employing the new electrodes. Further details about these electrodes along with preliminary test results from power cells will be provided. REFERENCES . Miley, G.H. and Shrestha, P. J., “Transmutation Reactions and Associated LENR Effects in Solids”, in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 998, pp. 173, Washington, DC (2008). . Miley, G.H., Hora, H., and Yang, X., “Condensed Matter “Cluster” Reactions in LENRs”, Proceedings, International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, ICCF-14, Washington DC, August 2008. . Miley, G.H., “Novel High Performance Cluster Type ICF Target, DOE Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICC) Workshop, Reno NV 2008. . Lipson A., Heuser, B.J., Castano C., Miley, G.H., Lyakhov, B. and Mitin, A. “Transport and magnetic anomalies below 70 K in a hydrogen-cycled Pd foil with a thermally grown oxide” Physical Review B 72, 212507, 2005.