alpha, beta, gamma, voltaic, supercapacitor, direct conversion
The usage of hetero-nano-layers to harvest the energy deposited in ionization by the stopping particles and radiation passing through the layers produces very efficient and compact solid-state battery devices. The structure in its simplest forms looks like a planar capacitor made from a plurality of nano-strata composed from minimum 4 components in a repeated periodically. The first external element is the radiation generator that can be a alpha particle emitter such as 239Pu, 241Am or a beta emitter as 67Ga, 3T, or gamma source. The first layer from the source has high electronic density generating a shower of knock-on electrons leaving the layer through a thin dielectric leaving it polarized positively. The electro shower is stopped in a second low electronic density conductor nano-layer that polarizes negatively and separated by a low emmitance dielectric from the next structure. This structure of conductor dielectric is repeated all along the radiation stopping range, converting almost all the radiation energy into electricity. For 238Pu battery it may have a module thickness of 50 microns possible to deliver up to 50 mW/cm2. In other configurations the super-capacitor like harvesting structure may be used in a multi-radiation energy harvesting tile for space applications.