nanograin, breeding, nuclear fuel,
The new developments in nano-structures and high-energy superconductors open the road for better nuclear energy. A new family of new nuclear fuels as well as energy harvesting blankets to be used as active shielding in many nuclear application as fission, fusion and annihilation. The nano-structured materials may make possible the direct radiation energy harvesting by using heterogeneous structures as well creating a neutron sensitive amplification layer with usage in neutron detectors and neutron beam harvesting. The nuclear fuel is warming up, mainly by micro-looping the electrons showers generated by the fission products stopping in the fuel lattice that further transfers the energy to the phonons. These loops or electronic knock-ons displacement appears in all the fuel materials, due to the fact that the excitation energy is in the range of several KeV, which is further spread to other electrons creating a shower that mainly follows the direction of the initial highly charged fission fragment. The occurred polarization after this initial stage makes the other charges in the system, move and restore the equilibrium. In a nano-structure with dimensions less than the path of the electrons the polarization effects occur making possible the capability of harvesting the fission products energy directly. The energy is directly converted in electricity with efficiencies greater than 80% being possible.