Andrew R. Gizara
Integrated Power Technology Corporation, United States
Keywords: SCADA. VPP. LCOE, ROI, Trade Space ExplorationFleets of wind-propelled craft dragging turbines through deep water can deliver energy much less expensively than existing or projected fixed structures. The captured energy is stored as hydrogen or anhydrous ammonia processed from seawater electrolysis or solid state ammonia synthesis respectively. These craft attain a higher Capacity Factor due to the SCADA guiding these craft to the greatest resources. Because turbine power output is cubically proportional to motive fluid velocity, and over deep water is where the greatest wind flows, these craft inherently outperform fixed platforms. For instance, 9m/s yields twice the power of 7m/s, thus paying for roundtrip storage. Foundations, cable, cable installation, and grid connect incur approximately half the total cost of fixed offshore platforms. Cable installation cost grows substantially with depth, with foundations presently limited to shallow to transitional depths. Eliminating cabling, foundations, permitting and other regulatory costs, along with reduced maintenance and operations costs due to central site assembly line (as opposed to hazardous field) service procedures over the long term pays for these craft themselves. Cost-effective storage affords unlimited scalability, grid feed-in baseload and load-balancing functionality. Results from hydrogen and ammonia storage models are cited.