Penn State combines strengths in materials, engineering, and the environmental sciences to address the nationâ€™s energy research needs. In January 2006, an Energy Task Force was created consisting of energy experts from across the University. The task force presented a strategic vision to enhance the already strong research, education, and outreach activity within the areas of energy sciences, engineering, and policy. The report recommended five major areas for new investment: efficient fossil energy extraction and conversion, bio-energy systems, hydrogen energy, nuclear energy, and solar energy, especially photo-system conversion of light energy to clean fuels. Last fiscal year, total research expenditures reached $665 million, including almost $100 million in industry-sponsored research.